Prof. Maryanne Horowitz

Ancient Athens & Renaissance Florence
History 220, Fall 2014

Hist 220  Ancient Athens and Renaissance Florence 10:05-11:30 a.m., Johnson 105, Tues, Thurs, Fall  2014

Ancient Athens and Renaissance Florence.  Meets CORE requirements pre-1800 and Regional Focus (CPRF).  Eligible for History & Classical Studies credit.   

This course provides an opportunity to vicariously "live" in historical cities considered to be creators of democratic or representative forms of government as well as of great literature and art. Historian Thucydides, comic Aristophanes, and philosopher Plato draw us into Athenian politics and culture; likewise, Lorenzo de' Medici and Machiavelli inform us of Florentine politics and culture. Monumental architecture and sculpture continue to serve to decorate and sustain the individuality of each city. By examining documents of daily life (including court cases) and the luxury products of the diverse crafts, we increase our knowledge of the controversial behavior and productivity of a wide spectrum of women and men. By focusing on two cities in their "golden age," the class will emphasize the shared positive, as well as negative, characteristics of ages historians have designated as "golden."

History majors may petition for 300-level credit for this class with the completion of additional work arranged with the instructor. (May be taken as History 397, by writing a research paper in place of one class paper.) 

On-line syllabus to be adjusted to students’ interests.






Prof. Maryanne Horowitz
Office: Swan 314   323-259-2583 (x2583 on campus)
Office Hours: Tues  8:00 – 9:50 a.m., Thurs. 3:00-3:55 and by appointment, especially Wed.
Sept 3, Sept 17, Oct 1, Oct 15, Oct 29, Nov 12, Dec 3.


Horowitz homepage             go to flower of courses, then to hist. 220



Campus mail to Horowitz mailbox, 
Hist. Dept., S. Swan 


Books  (Available in the bookstore; on reserve whenever possible)

Required Textbooks:

John Camp and Elizabeth Fisher, The World of the Ancient Greeks (Thames and Hudson, 2010

Kenneth Bartlett, The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance: a Sourcebook, 2nd edition. (reserve) (first edition has many of the items but at different pages)

Lisa Kaborycha, A Short History of Renaissance Italy (2011)

Willis (on electronic reserve, brief textbook chapters on Ancient Athens and Renaissance Florence)

Optional depending on student choice of paper topic: (all on reserve)

Choice for paper 1: 

Thomas C. Brickhouse and Nicholas D. Smith, ed., The Trial and Execution of Socrates: Sources and Controversies (reserve)

or Mary Lefkowitz and Maureen B. FantWomen's Life in Greece & Rome:  A Source Book in Translation, 3rd ed. in bookstore (earlier edition also on reserve, same pagination without supplement)

Paper 2 will focus on student's choice of  topic utilizing primary sources in Bartlett or

William J. Connell, trans., ed. intro., The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli with related documents, 2005. (reserve)      or

Gene Brucker, The Society of Renaissance Florence: A Documentary Study (reserve)


SEE MOODLE RESERVE READING  HIST. 220 (sections include books and electronic items: General, Athens, Florence)  Moodle links to syllabus at Horowitz homepage (

On-line classical texts at:   This website is a resource for any ancient Greek or Latin texts translated into English. The Oxy library has Loeb Classical Library on 3rd floor outside Special Collections: green books from Greece and red books from Rome.

For extra credit on reporting from a field trip, students might see some objects from ancient Greece at the Getty Villa, Malibu (especially second floor sections on Greek women and Greek warriors respectively and two temples on main floor). Students might see some items from medieval/Renaissance/17th century at either the Getty Center, 405 Fwy (especially manuscript room, medieval to 17th century sculpture and paintings) OR at the Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena (main floor, medieval to 17th century art)

All students should spend some time in Occidental College Hillside Theater---good location for reading outloud passages of Aristophanes or Sophocles or expressing your own thoughts in our Grecian amphitheatre.

  Schedule (to be updated on-line to adapt to student interests)

ANCIENT ATHENS IN GREEK CONTEXT    During first 4 weeks, read introductory urban European history textbook byWillis, electronic reserve chapter on Athens (2a, 2b, 2c, 2d). Traditional interpretation. Bring Camp and Fisher to class each day. (assume at least a 20-minute discussion of reading assigned for that day).

Week 1 Greek Beginnings.  Read Camp and Fisher, ch. 1 "Who were the Greeks?"  (continue to use map. p. 12, timeline pp. 18-19) and "pottery" (key item analyzed by archeologists), pp. 182-183. Note for reference other maps p. 64, 194, 208. and tourist suggestions on Athens p. 214 (names useful for looking up on your ArtSTOR account.) Optionally ch. 2 "The First Greeks" on Minoans in Crete,  only pp. 24-25, 29, 35, 48-51.

Thurs. Aug. 28  Introduction.  Viewing with maps Ancient Athens in historical context: appreciating stages of ancient culture upon which Athens built.  On learning to analyze primary sources and historical debate:  Longstanding topic: why did the jury find Socrates guilty?   Recent topic: how to study gender, sexuality, & women in ancient Greece (on reserve, Sian Lewis, Sarah Pomeroy, article by Joan Connelly) "Melian Dialogue"  of Thucydides (for those not in class pick up xerox in basket outside my office Swan 314).  Use the document analysis form to critically evaluate the document: form for document or image analysis Pass in 1-2 typed pages on Thurs. Sept. 4, to be graded in form of check plus, check, or check minus. Camp and Fisher, p. 141, discuss Thucydides, traditional major source of knowledge about Athenians (translated from Greek to Latin and available to Florentines of 15th century). 

Lecture with Powerpoint images from Janson’s (reserve for browsing) “Emergence of Free-Standing Sculpture”

Week 2 Athens as Influential Model in Arts and Government

Tues. Sept. 2 Come prepared to discuss  last week's reading and Camp and Fisher, ch. 3 "The Heroic Age" on the Mycenaeans (Agamemnon of Homer's Iliad) only pp. 37-43, 45-49, 52-55 and ch. 7, pp.144-153 and browsing for favorite god, goddess, hero or heroine.  Aristotle's Politics, excerpt in Leftkowitz and Fant (reserve), pp. 38-39.

 Lecture:  "Private vs. Public Realms" & "Political Science Analysis of Government of 5th century. BCE Athens"   Politics/Society lecture outline   The private-public distinction in antiquity vs. in 21st century Western democracies derives from Aristotle's Politics. Lecture applies Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition.   Optional on reserve: Horowitz, "Aristotle and Woman"

Thurs. Sept. 4. Have some images of one or two of your favorite ancient Greek hero, heroine, god or goddess (image in a book/Xerox of page or written website to access). Later, we’re going to seek out representation during the Renaissance. Fine to browse in images in Fleming or Jansons' on reserve. and in Brucker's large textbook Renaissance Florence on reserve.) Enjoy feeling like a collector: creating an electronic “collection” of objects.

 Lecture with Powerpoint images from Janson’s (reserve for browsing): “Visuals from ancient Athens: development of monumental architecture, especially temples for housing statues of gods and goddesses”

Week 3  Most Vivid Memory of Athens: The Parthenon and the Trial of Socrates (as in Plato’s Apology) Camp and Fisher,  ch. 5, "Polis: the Early Greek City, pp. 76-93, 97-101 (Miletus, Ephesus in Asia Minor), 104-109 (Syracuse, Paestum, Marseille, Cyrene) and  "Architecture" by which one spots an ancient Greek city, pp. 166-173. Finish ch. 7, "Gods and Heroes." Pp. 154-163. Plato's Apology either in Brickhouse and Smith or on-line, trans.  Jowett:   Reminder to have read Willis, electronic reserve, parts a and b.

Email the primary source(s) you have chosen for reports on Thurs. Sept. 11 (reader on trial of Socrates) or Thurs. Sept. 18 (reader on women). First come, first serve; others will be assigned Tuesday. Documents written in antiquity would be the primary sources.

Tues. Sept. 9 Have gone to Hillside Theatre and spoken from the stage. Find other classical architectural components on campus.  Come prepared to discuss also Camp and Fisher, ch. 4 "Age of Expanding Horizons" only pp. 66-75, and "Metalwork" pp. 186-187, with examples from Bronze age of Mycenaeans,;  Read on Olympics, pp. 154-157   "Melian Dialogue" still accepted; others passed back.

Discussion of Greek architecture and its components.

Lecture: "Historical Context of the Trial and Execution of Socrates"     Discussion of ch. 5 on "Polis"   What's "Greek" about each city?

Thurs. Sept. 11 Student reports on primary sources The Trial.    Discussion of "Architecture" and of ch. 4: colonization, panhellenism, Eastern influence, coinage, beginnings of Greek literature.

Week 4 Today’s Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies of Ancient Greeks. Camp and Fisher, Ch.6,  "Classical Athens" and "Sculpture" pp. 174-181 and "Painting" pp. 184-185  You are welcome to come to office hours for me to go over your paragraph(s) with you before passing in on Thursday Sept. 18. Reminder to have read Willis, electronic reserve, part c.

Tues. Sept. 16 Oral reports on primary sources Women's Life.          To help you prepare a paper:   signups for Sept. 24 (Socrates) or Sept. 26 (women/gender/sexuality)---either your argument or analysis of an argument in Trial  and Execution book or an argument in reserve reading on women/gender/sexuality.       Discussion: What were the "democratic" institutions of classical Athens?  What was the city's social structure?  Why do Americans admire Athens so much? What do you see as the key sources of its "greatness"?

Thurs. Sept. 18 Oral Student Arguments on a topic concerning gender formation, sexualities, or women in ancient Greece.    Exercise for you to master Univ. of Chicago endnotes. Follow class format for paper. Pass in 1 typed page with a separate page of at least 5 Univ. of Chicago endnotes  (at least 2 to primary sources, at least 2 to secondary sources assigned or on reserve). The paragraphs may be intended for any section of your paper.  As long as you have 5 endnotes, your writing may be very short.     I shall return marked pages Tues Sept.23. Goal is for you to endnote properly in your paper due Th. Oct. 2. 

Week 5 The Warrior Reconsidered: From Homer’s Achilles to Alexander the Great” Camp and Fisher, ch.9, "Alexander and the Hellenistic World"   Read Willis, electronic reserve, "2d Hellenistic Culture" 

Tues Sept. 23 Oral Student Arguments on The Trial.  Introduction to evaluating Alexander the Great.

Thurs. Sept. 25. See in class some of the film Troy, a portrayal of Myceneans. Start at scene 28 where Achilles learns of death of friend Patroclus. See funeral games thought to be at origin of Olympics. See confrontation of Achilles and Hector.   Consider how historical epic of Homer's Iliad raised moral issues by considering reading on electronic reserve Homer on “Death of Hector.”

Week 6  Thinking like an Athenian: How does one live the good life? Camp and Fisher, ch. 10, "Romans and Christians"

Tues Sept 30. Discuss meeting of Priam, ruler of Troy, with Achilles concerning death of Hector.  Powerpoint Lecture:  Athens after Alexander:  "Hellenistic Philosophical Schools" 

Thurs. Oct. 2 FIRST PAPER DUE   Introduction to Renaissance Florence and the Medici family   

RENAISSANCE FLORENCE: MEDIEVAL TO RENAISSANCE  (Over next 2 weeks, read Willis, 11a and 11b, electronic reserve on Florence of Lorenzo de' Medici and Florentine Culture

Week 7 The Beautiful Book: Florentine Recovery of Ancient Manuscripts & Florentine Illumination & Calligraphy. Lisa Kaborycha, A Short History of Renaissance Italy, Forward by Gene Brucker, xiv-xvi, and pp.  1-16 overview of rise of Florence. Bartlett,  section l on Classical Heritage (Introductions, Quintilian and Cicero) , pp. 1-11, and Lorenzo de' Medici p. 238-9. Good tips on analyzing a document, pp. xix-xx.

Tues. Oct. 7.  Go directly to 3rd floor of Library to Special Collections which faces the chapel and baseball field.  Papers returned (2nd copy with no comments placed on reserve); each student assigned to comment on l specific student paper: 2 copies 1-page due Oct. 16, comments on additional paper extra credit.

Hands-on Workshop with authentic 16th & 17th century books.

 Thurs Oct. 9 Visiting Florence in 1330s, in 1377-78, and in 1439"   First commitment to choice of paper 2 using Connell's reader on context of Machiavelli and/or  documents in Bartlett's reader(R) and/or documents in Brucker, Society of Renaissance Florence (R)  Pass in a Figure list of some examples of ancient as well as Renaissance images of your chosen Greek hero, heroine, god or goddess (at least 2 from each period).

Week 8 Calamitous 14th Century for Florentine Writers and Workers Kaborycha, pp. 16-18 on naturalism in 13th-14th century Florentine art, pp. 22-35  on Black Death and Ciompi revolt in Florence.  Bartlett, section III on Petrarch, Intro, "Letter to Posterity," "Letter to Shade of Cicero"   

Fall Break

Thurs. Oct. 16 Bring Bartlett to analyze texts. "Stages of Humanism: From Early Humanism of Petrarch to Civic Humanism of Leonardo Bruni"  Students reporting on Quintillian's "Citizen-Orator," Cicero "The Orator, "  Petrarch's " Posterity" ""   Revival of ancient ideas about virtue

Week 9 Florentine Civic Humanism of Early 15th Century Kaborycha ch. 3 on humanists and artists and ch. 6 pp. 88-107 and  Medici pp. 108-116.   Bartlett, section V "Humanism"  Intro, Vespasiano, Bruni, History of Florence and on Dante, Isotta Nogarola and Bruni to Battista Malatesta, sect. IX, pp. 186-188.  (Recommended: Battista's oration is in King, Her Immaculate Hand, reserve)

Tues. Oct. 21 Student reports Vespasiano's Lives: Poggio, Niccolo Niccoli; Isotta Nogorola. Discuss changes in governments: Monarchical vs. representative traditions and Imperialism among ancient Greek city-states (especially Athens and Sparta) and among 14th and 15th century Italian city-states (especially Milan and Florence). 2 students work together on presentation on Guelf vs. Ghibelline and impact on Dante: reserve Brucker, Golden Age, pp. 31-39. 2 students work together to analyze Cosimo de Medici's rise vs. the Strozzi and other families.  (reserve: Brucker, Golden Age pp. 44-48 and p. 253)

Thurs. Oct. 23 Hour and Half 2 Essays Exam--go directly to room to be announced and start up a PC. Possible Topics for Essay Questions on mainly textbook  and classwork.   One will be able to study ahead for chosen topics for which a specific question will appear on exam. Some students might want to continue a theme in topic of Florentine paper.

Some themes of continuing interest:

The contrast of Athens and Sparta, especially governance and social structure including citizen women's lives,  from 6th to 4th c. BCE and reasons for admiration of Sparta for Plato and Xenophon in 4th c. BCE.  Consider impact of ancient city-state histories on diversity of city-states in the Renaissance. Consider impact of Latin translations of Xenophon (on Alberti and Barbaro) and Plato (on Ficino and Pico della Mirandola)

Cultural traits shared by Athenians with other Greek city-states and distinctiveness of Athens

Stages of Culture in Athens from Archaic to Hellenic to Hellenistic (art, ideas, texts, multiple deities and religious ritual, popular genres).   Florentines sought out ancient art objects and culture (mainly Hellenic and Hellenistic in Roman copies); not until the 18th century was there accurate dating and awareness of the changes from Hellenic to Hellenistic art.  Early Renaissance artists admire ancient art; by time of Michelangelo, some critics believe Renaissance art has equaled or surpassed the ancients.

Role of leagues in international relations and war, Greek areas 6th to 4th c. BCE.  In particular, Persian Wars according to Herodotus and Peloponnesian Wars according to Thucydides. Such secular history writing is revived in Florentine Renaissance in accounts of the city of Florence--Villani, Boccaccio,  Bruni, Guicciardini, Machiavelli. Renaissance city-states created leagues for war and for preventing war; they also invented resident ambassadors (Mattingly, Renaissance Diplomacy)

The issue of factions (political issues, economic divides) in ancient Athenian history and in  Florentine history. Topic of interest to American Founding Fathers wanting to avoid factions.

Impact of art and architecture from the ancients on the Florentines (in particular the representation of human form in images of heros, heroines, gods, and goddesses).

Week 10 Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies of the Italian Renaissance City-States: Kaborycha, ch.  5.  Bartlett, all of sect. VII and only Alberti in section VIII, pp. 166-176. Read on Machiavelli in historical context in  William J. Connell, ed., Foreward by Natalie Davis, and Intro. by Connell.

Thinking ahead to your 2nd paper for which you have ample choice with guidance.

Oct. 28, Pass in a sheet indicating what interests you the most for 2nd paper: your pick of 2 sections/topics within Machiavelli document book or 2 authors (or 2 sections) in Bartlett document book, or 2 sections in Brucker, Society of Renaissance Florence. Florentine Topics in Bartlett  include revival of ancient writers and philosophies, responses to Black Death, humanist education including Bruni on women's education, civic humanism in Florentine chancellor and in civic commissions, neo-Platonism in text and art, Savonarola, Guicciardini, marriage arrangements, challenges of poor women (combine with Brucker; supplement with Cohn, Women of the Streets on reserve).  To take a stand in a historical controversy, one might look at historiographical articles on reserve:   Riccardo Fubini on "Renaissance Humanism and its Development in Florentine Civic Culture,"  John Najemy "Politics and Political Thought," or Najemy "Political Ideas," or edited book by Kohl and Smith,  Major Problems in the History of the Italian Renaissance. 

Lecture on Transition in Florentine Government: Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo de’ Medici.

Tues Oct. 28 and Thurs Oct 30  Student oral analyses of primary sources. Name follows the assignment. Bartlett sect VIII: Brunelleschi & Taccola; Alberti "On Painting and Sculpture"; Alberti "On Architecture"; Bartlett; sect. VII on family and women:  Alberti "The Family on Renaissance Florence"; Marriage arrangements, 133-139  and Laura Cereta pp. 196-8.

Week 11  Florence in Late 15th Century: Age of Lorenzo de’ Medici,  Kaborycha, ch. 9 and Michelangelo and Raphael, ch.11, only pp. 213-221. Start The Prince, pp. 39-68, and read contexual documents pp. 125-145, the early prefaces to The Prince, pp. 145-152.  Bartlett,  Guicciardini pp. 240-43, 258-263. Review early Florentine historians, Villani, Boccaccio in Bartlett ch. IV, Vespasiano and Bruni in ch. V. Read Valla pp. 206-210, modern critical analysis of a historical document, proving it a forgery.

 Tues. Nov. 4  Lecture with Hand-out: "Machiavelli and Machiavellianism"  Student analyses of  selection of Machiavelli's  "Letter to Vettori," pp. 236-8student reports on documents in Machiavelli book.

Thurs. Nov. 6  Bring 2 typed copies of a thesis statement for next paper with your Primary Source Bibliography and List of Figures (artist, title, year, location now; your reference to specific book with page or ArtSTOR). Bring either Bartlett, Brucker, or Connell's Machiavelli document book for small group workshop. Immediate return of proposal only if 2 typed copies brought to class; bibliography will remain passed in; paper on Nov. 14 will have endnotes containing  full bibliographical references.

Lecture: "Revival of history of man-made events: Thucydides and historians of Florence, especially Machiavelli and Guicciardini"   

Week 12 Today’s Most Influential Florentine Author: Machiavelli  Kaborycha on Machiavelli, ch. 11, pp. 197-204. Read The Prince, pp. 68-114. Especially consider pp. 87-104, which veered from traditional prince manuals. Bartlett, all of ch. VI,  pp. 97-102 Ficino and Pico, ”Oration,” pp. 104-108 and Poliziano, pp. 108-109, as well as Lorenzo de’ Medici’s poems pp. 238-9.

Tues. Nov. 11 Bring a typed draft of your paper or a typed detailed sentence outline of your paper, your final typed bibliography, and  xeroxes of images you will include.  Bring key primary sources you analyzed for 30-minute student workshops on analyzing documents in more depth and  improving papers.

Power-point Lecture:  Philosophy in Neo-Platonic Mode Lecture Outlin

Th. Nov. 13 Paper 2 due in 2 typed copies at beginning of class. (hard copies necessary) That 2nd copy (not marked by reader) will be put on reserve with student reader's commentary (by Nov. 26 the latest). Look up the documents (includes images) on the student paper you are considering. Might you suggest further analysis of those documents? Might the student have made the argument more effective? Do the documents suggest another argument altogether? Overall, consider how the paper might more effectively consider the implications of the documents chosen, and feel free to suggest other documents or images that would strengthen the paper further.   

Meanwhile, we shall feast our eyes on Raphael's "School of Athens" while analyzing neo-Platonic documents in Barlett.

Week 13 Neo-Platonism: Interpreting Socrates as in Plato’s Symposium  Read The Prince, pp. 115-124 on call to exhortation to Italy, Remembrance of Athens in the Renaissance.  Raphael "School of Athens"  in Julius II's Study in Vatican. (image in chapter on Roman Renaissance Style in Fleming and on-line, details in ArtSTOR) Bartlett, ch. VI : Be prepared to discuss Neo-Platonism pp. 97-110.   Read Fleming, Arts & Ideas, chapter  "Florentine Renaissance Style" (reserve, other copies in stacks), and compare with chapter on "The Hellenic Style." Consider the historical context which produced such a high level of crafts and art objects in ancient Athens and Renaissance Florence

Tues. Nov. 18 Bring Bartlett for discussion of neo-Platonic texts pp. 97-110.   Medici sought paths of souls to ascend, while realistic statecraft was pursued in Florence and in princely courts. 

Be prepared to show the class your chronological and thematic collection of images of a god. goddess, hero, or heroine from ancient Greek culture through the Renaissance. Some students may show powerpoint or a collection in ArtSTOR; hopefully some will project their image collection in Crossroads on the Media Wall.

Th. Nov. 20  Lecture: Jews  in Medici neo-Platonic circle.

Week 14 Openings into Nobility through Revival of Platonism and Stoicism

Tues. Nov. 25   Assignment on analysis of student papers due in 2 copies (Fine to pass in earlier).(See description under Nov. 14.)

Power-Point Lecture:   : The Renaissance "studiolo," home study:  Piero de' Medici's studiolo (inherited by son Lorenzo) and Isabella d'Este's suites. Remember our class in Special Collections.



Week 15 Medici Florentine Origins of a Room for a Scholar/Collector.   Review reading. Add Kaborycha, pp. 209-210 Mantua & 213-221 Michelangelo and Raphael and 241-244 to Duke Cosimo I. For review of images shown in class on a few occasions, see images from Florence in ch. 15 & ch. 16, Janson's History of Art.  Optional on reserve on study designed by Piero de’ Medici near chapel of Medici urban palace in Florence, Horowitz, "Humanist Horticulture."

Tues. Dec 3 Last date for a rewritten paper. It's necessary to include marked draft. As we're learning as a community, it's a good idea to include an endnote to another student paper or to a student comment on your paper.

Lecture: “Duke Cosimo I Celebrating Amerigo Vespucci”

Review: 2 35-Minute Questions with choice between 2 on Political History of Florence (1293 Ordinance of Justice through Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici & wife Eleanor of Toledo), Machiavelli, Neo-Platonism in Text and Art.   70-Minute Question on Architecture & Sculpture/City-planning with societal functions of 5th c. BCE Athens and 15th c. Florence.  

Bring laptop or smartphone for new on-line evaluations.

Final Exam is scheduled for WEDNESDAY. Dec. 10  8:30-11:30 a.m. in Brown Room with PCs. No books, notes, or downloads allowed at exam.

Requirements    (Go to top)


College Policy on Academic Honesty: Current policy at   This class helps prevent plagiarism by teaching you how to endnote either quoted or summarized material in Univ. of Chicago format.

Computers are encouraged in classroom for reference to assigned electronic resources, your notes, or for notetaking (not email, not browsing).

College Policy on Disabilities: Students with documented disabilities who are registered with Disability Services are required to present their accommodation letter to the instructor at the beginning of each semester or as soon as possible thereafter. Any student who experiences significant physical or mental impairments may contact Disability Services at (323) 259-2969 to learn about available services and support.  More information is available at

Percentages in Grade

20 Class participation, including attendance, presentations on recommended readings, progress on papers (including oral presentations), written and oral comments on other students' ideas and historical arguments, creation of a visual collection in ArtSTOR or Crossroads (see Sept. 4, Oct. 9. Nov. 18) Dr. Christopher Gilman, available to assist those wanting to post images on the Media Wall.

20  Paper 1. Due Thurs. Oct. 2, 2014. 4 pages plus endnotes.  1) Argue your interpretation of the reasons Athenians tried Socrates or the reasons why the jury found him guilty of the accusations against him.  Consider the historical interpretations and the evidence. Cite sources  of Part l and consider at least 2 articles in Part II, section 7.  OR 2) Ask a historical gender studies, women's studies, or sexualilty studies question about ancient Athens and use primary source evidence to make your response. You may choose to compare the situation in Athens to another location in ancient Greece, or you may choose to consider ideas about and attitudes toward women (for which you might include a work by an ancient author).  In any case, your paper is a  focus on analysis of primary sources. If you need additional readings beyond class books and discussion, you may include up to 2 endnoted articles and 2 books.

20 Paper 2. Due Thurs. Nov. 13, 2014. See preparatory assignment due dates on syllabus.  4 pages plus endnotes. Narrow your focus to your specific concern or question.  You may cite class books and up to 2 endnoted articles and 2 books. Include a xerox of at least 1 image (maximum 4 images) with a list of figures.  1) Intellectual or cultural  history paper focused on 5-8 Florentine sources in Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. Closely analyze documents  to support your argument about the development of ideas or cultural movements  in Renaissance Florence.  OR 2) Political or political philosophy question focused on a transition in Florentine government or on an aspect of  Machiavelli's thought in his historical context. Analyze 5-8 documents or chapters of treatises (fine to check out library books such as Livy and Machiavelli's Discourses on Livy; or text by Boccaccio, or Bruni, or Ficino, or other Florentines).

20  Essay Exam on The World of the Ancient Greeks, lectures, discussion. (request date pending--tentatively Oct. 24, typing on PCs, room to be announced.

20  Final Essay Exam  Tues. Dec. 10, 8:30-11:30 a.m. (choice of 1 essay question comparative topic for Athens and Florence,  other half of exam on topics on Florence) typing on PCs

These papers teach skills in evaluating historical interpretations and in analyzing primary sources. Apply form for document or image analysis to enhance your critical analysis. Pass in two typed copies 12 point, Times New Roman, at beginning of class.  Prepare papers on a wordprocessing program  for easy revision. Regularly backup your disk. Keep a  hardcopy and the disk at least until final  grades are received. Endnotes and Bibliography for historians accord with Chicago Manual of Style.  Hacker discusses The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition, 2010) on pp. 510-537:  follow no. 4 for citing work by multiple authors and follow no. 13 for citing work in an anthology as for a specific document Women's Life in Greece & Rome. While a bibliography is alphabetized by last name, an endnote should always begin with the first name and then the last name of the author of the sentences quoted or paraphrased. You may cite a student or faculty comment with approximate date (such as from a student report showing student's interpretation with which you agree or disagree).  The first name that appears in an endnote is the author you are citing: examples include an author of an article in an edited book (as in Trial and Execution of Socrates), or an author of a primary source quoted by a secondary source, or a student who expressed an interesting viewpoint in Hist 220, Occidental College, on a specific date in fall 2012.

Paper 2 should have at least 1 image xeroxed (maximum 4) with List of Figures.

Center for Academic Excellence sponsors Peer Writing Advisors. They invite you to bring an early draft of your paper with the assignment instructions above.

·  Phone: (323) 259-2545

·  Office: Academic Commons, Ground Floor


Center for Digital Learning + Research:

Christopher Gilman, PhD

Information Visualization Specialist / Instructional Designer

(323) 259-4044 


Additional work for hist. 397 students: Students enrolling as Hist. 397 are required to do either paper assignment at the first paper due date and to replace the other assignment by a research paper of 15 pages including endnotes, bibliography divided into primary and secondary sources.  For the research paper, 7 pages including endnotes and bibliography and a sentence outline of research paper are due Tues.  Nov. 4, 2014. The entire paper is due Tues. Nov. 26.  For Hist. 397, class participation will count 10% and the research paper will count 30%.


To gain familiarity with major events, people, and movements in the history of pre-modern Western Civilization 

To learn basic methods of historical investigation, particularly analysis of textual and visual sources.

To experience the process of interpreting major movements in ancient and Renaissance history (including Renaissance interpretation of antiquity)

To develop skills in historical argument, writing, and oral presentation.