Prof. Maryanne Horowitz
Changing Views of Gender, Women, and Sexualities (a core course in GWSS Minor) 
History 237 (Spring 2018)   

T, Th  10:05-11:30 a.m.  Class Meetings Johnson 105

Office Hours in Swan 314: Tues.  8:45-9:40 a.m.,  and Thurs. 8:00-9:50 a.m. and by appointment.  (Usually available right after class for a short consultation in classroom.)

Up-to-date Syllabus on-line at; linked from MOODLE site.

Hist. 237 Core:  GLOBAL/INTERCULTURAL, Pre-1800   Changing Views of Gender, Women, and Sexualities

In early modern times, popular conceptualizations of the intersection of gender and sexuality, ethnicity/race, and rank/class divided women from each other. Activist advocacy for women emerged from a debate on women's nature to a debate on opportunities for women: to be educated, to write, to speak out, to preach, to express one's individuality in dress and demeanor, or to work in one's chosen occupation. For the transformation in political theory from Lockean family representation to Suffragette individual representation in the state, we shall explore the literature on "rights" from Wollstonecraft to United Nations declarations on global Women's Rights & current revival of American movement for Equal Rights Amendment. We shall experience together a diversity of films as students discuss the intersectionality of race, gender, class, religion, and sexualities.


Campus mail to Horowitz mailbox,  
Hist. Dept., S. Swan 



Books (used whenever possible) in Bookstore:  (Used copies also on Also to be on 2-hour Reserve)

Estelle B. Freedman, No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women (Ballantine,   2002)


Estelle B. Freedman,  Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings (Vintage Books or Modern Library, 2007)

Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness (Oxford, 1993)

Danai Gurira, Eclipsed (Theatre Communication Group, 2015)


Student choices: recent feminist films and articles on Reserve List at MOODLE

On readings, take notes on chapters, “What is author’s key argument?” Does author consider multiple views? What is author’s evidence for argument?

Course Objectives

To empathize with problems caused by sexism and to consider the solutions from an intersectional perspective, emphasizing interconnections with different bases of identity and multiple systems of oppression, including race and class.

To gain familiarity with major events, people, and movements in the history of gender, women, and sexualities in Europe, U.S.A., with case-studies globally.

To learn basic methods of historical investigation, particularly analysis of textual sources (including a play) and film.  DOCUMENT ANALYSIS FORM 

To develop skills in argument, writing, and oral presentation.




20% each:  1)  In-class Midterm Exam  2) Second Exam  3) Class Attendance, Oral Participation   4) 5) 5-page paper on current controversial issue that motivates you 5) 5-page paper comparing and contrasting feminist issues in the writings of two authors from a specific historical and cultural context that interests you. Students will discuss and debate issues and respond to students' papers.

Exams: Typed on a computer, double space, Times New Roman, 12 Point.

Papers. Typed on a computer, double space, Times New Roman, 12 Point.  Each paper is 5-7 typed pages plus Works Cited indicating specific author and article within a book or journal.  Divide Works Cited into Primary Sources and Secondary Sources. Be consistent within one paper in either M.L.A. Style (parenthetical author, p.)  or University of Chicago Style (endnotes).  Pass in 2 copies.

Paper 1:  Pick l specific current controversy among feminists.  Either argue your position on a specific aspect of the issue (considering counter-arguments) or analyze and evaluate multiple positions on the overall controversy to clarify current state of the debate. Cite writings by at least 2 feminists of your choice.   Students are encouraged to come to office hours in preparing for Sept. 18 topic proposal. 


Paper 2:  Pick 2 persons from one particular historical period whose areas of concern relate to feminist issues.  Utilizing some of their writings, art, or records of organizing, compare their viewpoints and activities within their specific historical contexts. Recommend books by women, newly translated into English in Oxy library series “Other Voice in early Modern Europe” ” For this second paper, do not use websites except those like JSTOR containing peer-reviewed articles. It is required that you have some primary sources by the 2 persons.  

Tues. Nov. 8 * Paper 2 abstract and bibliography due.  Bring 2 primary sources to class to discuss your proposal.  Paper due Nov. 20 in 2 copies.

Extra Credit for participation in attending or creating feminist happenings on campus or in Los Angeles 1) announce event ahead in class or via class email 2) afterwards pass in a page analysis of the event within a week after event. For example, see announcements of Oxy’s Center for Gender Equity, Planned Parenthood chapter, or other organizations.

Center for Study of Women, UCLA     Williams Institute:                          

Feminist Majority Foundation see    Planned Parenthood

Highly Recommend the following planned ahead.  I also will be forwarding to class list other speakers & events.

Sept 14 Fri. 4:30 p.m. Choi Auditorium psychologist Dr. Michelle Hebl“Gender and Race Gatekeeping”(co-sponsor GWSS)


CSP Lectures, Thorne Hall, 11:45

Mon, Oct. 1   Margo Okazawa-Rey   Founding member of Combahee River Collective which articulated a theory of intersectionality in  “A Black Feminist Statement."  No. 48 in class book The Essential Feminist Reader

October 15 (M) CSP Lecture, Thorne Hall:  Oxy grad Pardis Mahdavi.  Most recent book “Crossing the Gulf: Love and Family in Migrant Lives”


Other GWSS lecturers through an endowment at DWA will be announced:

“Complexities of Human Trafficking” Fri. Oct. 5 Choi Auditorium starts 11:45-1:55 (Globally) and  continues 1:55-2:50 (in L.A.)


  #Top of page


Unit l. Feminist Movements 19th-21st centuries; Intersections of Social Movements and Growing Awareness of Intersectionality; Controversies of concern to students in class

1)      First class is Thurs. Aug. 30   Start reading in Estelle Freedman, No Turning Back, ch. 1 ( pp. 1-17) & ch. 3 ( pp.45-72) and “Unity Principles of Women’s March 1/21/17”


2)      Read Freedman, No Turning Back, Part III, “Politics of Work and Family,” pp. 123-202. Sept. 4  FILM North Country  123 minutes. North Country was based on the book Class action: the story of Lois Jensen and the landmark case that changed sexual harassment law by Clara Bingham and Laura Leedy (R) 1) Witness the harassments experienced by the female miners (quid pro quo, sexual, gender, physical violence, “humor”) 2) Record individual and group diverse efforts to rectify "the hostile environment." 

Sept. 6 North Country    

3)      Sept. 11 Reserve on-line readings since 2008: on intersectionality, McCann, Introduction, Oxy faculty  member Erica Ball article of 2009,

      Read No Turning Back, Part II, chs. 3, 4, 5  Historical Emergence of Feminism”

Bring xerox or scan and be prepared to talk about an issue statistically analyzed in Penguin Atlas of Women’s Atlas of the World. (2 on reserve)

*Sept 13 Paper Proposal due with Topic, Primary and Secondary Bibliography. Include some chapters from The Essential Feminist Reader and from reserve reading.

Lecture on Feminist Liberalism cited patriarchy in Locke’s Second Discourse on Government & U.S. Constitution, and liberal liberation movement in following documents in The Essential Feminist Reader: 9 Stanton, 11 Harriet Mill, 12 JS Mill & Harriet Mill,

Equal Rights Amendment

Recommended film: The Suffragette. Analysis acceptable for extra credit, as for guest lectures/events.


4)      *Sept. 18 Pass in revised paper proposal with divided bibliography or works cited. Necessary to hand in hard copies at class or at office mailbox(not a correspondence course via email) (Pick up comments on proposals placed outside Swan 314 Sept. 13)


Philosophical discussion of sex, gender, and sexualities occurred in 5th-4th century Athens.  Theories of Sex and Gender and Sexualities in Plato and Aristotle   Read on reserve Horowitz, “Aristotle and Woman”   Aristotle’s influential “justification” of father’s rule over wife and over “natural” slaves is in his Politics, Bk. 1, parts 1-8.    

Plato, Republic, Book V proposes women among military guardians and philosopher-kings


 Sept. 20 Student presentations of controversial issue

5)      Sept. 25 McCann and Seung-kyung “introduction” of 2016, McCann, ch. 18 “Re-thinking Intersectionality”

 Presentations of controversial issue.


*Sept. 27    Paper 1 Due in 2 copies.   Workshop on papers.  Introduce Black Feminist readings for next Tues.

10 Black Women's Rights Activists Who Have Changed The Face Of ...


6)      Oct. 2 Bring your 2nd copy of your paper; marked papers will be returned.


Discuss Speaker on Mon. Oct. l Thorne, ll:30: Margo Okazawa-  “A Black Feminist Statement."  No. 48 in class book The Essential Feminist Reader , Also on Afro-American feminists in Essential Feminist Reader no. 10 Sojourner Truth, no. 18 Anna Cooper, no. 4l Pauli Murray.

 Freedman, No Turning Back, Part IV Politics of Health and Sexuality. In Essential Feminism, Margaret Sanger no. 31.


Oct. 4 You may pass in your paper again with improved bibliography & notation indicating page of a quote, and improved paragraphing if needed. Lecture on Feminism of working Feminist Socialism. Recall North Country. Review No Turning Back, pp. 3-4, 22-23, 58-64, 106, 171-75 References to Essential Feminist Reader: no. 26 Ramírez, Akiko, Oppenheim; No. 16 Engels; no. 25 Alexandra Kollontai; no. 44 Mariarosa Dalla Costa “A General Strike”


7)      Fall Break  - No Turning Back, part I Before Feminism, ch. 2 “Gender and Power” (a global pre-modern chapter)


Oct. 9  No Turning Back, Part V Feminist Visions and Strategies chs. 13, 14.


Oct. 11 1970s: reading nos. 41-50 in Essential Feminist Reader   Review for Mid-term.   Sign-ups for reports Tues. on intersectionality readings.


8)       Tues. Oct. 16 Individual reports on reserve readings on intersectionality.

Thurs. Oct. 18 Mid-term Essay Exam confirmed for typing in OMac Lab, glass enclosure in basement of Academic Commons  All of No Turning Back, assigned other readings, classwork.

UNIT 2: Shift within early modern times from arguing about woman’s nature to arguing for equal rights and equal opportunities. Contemporary working for intersectional collaboration of multiple movements for the locally disadvantaged.Occidental College Policy prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of protected class: race, color, national origin, ancestry, age, religious belief, marital status, physical or mental disability, medical condition, veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by federal, state, or local law.” 

9)       Oct. 23 Lerner, Creation of Feminism, chs. 1,12 (first and last chapters),  2, 3, 6 and Grimké, no. 7 in The Essential Feminist Reader

Film shown on changes in a few decades.

         Oct. 25 Thursday, please bring to class 2 books from the series edited by Margaret King Other voice in early modern Europe or other TEXTS by women advocating the advancement of women preferably from the pre-modern period.  We are gathering our 2 primary sources for paper 2, a history of 2 pre-modern women. Comparison and contrast provides a format; a definitive commitment is on Nov. 8.

10)  Oct. 30 Lerner, Creation of Feminism, chs. 7, 8, 9; Christine de Pizan, “The Book of the City of Ladies” ch. 1 in The Essentialist Feminist Reader;  Marie de Gournay “Equality of Men and Women” on electronic reserve

Nov. 1 80s readings, nos.  51-57 in Essential Feminist Reader 

Classroom View together Film: The Hunting Ground Take notes as a witness to testimony. How does one avoid unwitnessed violent events?

Nov. 6  Lerner, Creation of Feminism, chs. 10-11.   The Essentialist Feminist Reader, Poullain de la Barre, no. 2;  Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women, no. 5.  Workshop in Academic Commons-checking out a feminist book in series “The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe,” examining encyclopedias, and exploring H section of stacks

Nov. 8 * Paper 2 abstract and bibliography due.  Bring 2 primary sources to class to discuss your proposal.  Special event: Guest speaker Dr. Melissa Moreton on “Nuns and Book Arts in Renaissance Florence”

UNIT 3: Empathetic understanding of contrast in choices for women living in a peace zone versus a war zone: change can happen suddenly in home, schools, work places, & public spaces.

11)  Nov. 13 Return of paper 2 plan. 90s Readings 58-62 in Essential Feminist Reader  and electronic reserve 1990s: Angela Davis and Uma Narayan.  Moodle: “Women’s Rights Documents on-line” has additional documents, as well as  Hilary Clinton’s coining of “Women’s Rights are Human Rights” in 1995 at UN 4th Conference on Women and other documents of UN:

Nov. 15  Meet in Special Collections of the Academic Commons. Read Eclipsed.

Nov. 20 Bring Eclipsed   2000s Readings 63, 64 in Essential Feminist Reader and Reserve Electronic Reading: Serano, “Trans woman Manifesto  Start class oral rendition of the play Eclipsed.

12)    *Tues. Nov.  20 Paper Due in 2 copies, comparing and contrasting feminist issues in the writings of two authors from a specific historical and cultural context that interests you.   Paper Workshop (some papers may go on reserve with author’s permission)

Review of readings since hour exam.

Thanksgiving   Finish reading Eclipsed.

13)   Nov. 27 Bring Eclipsed   Class oral rendition of the play 


Nov. 29  Hoping to return papers.


14)   Dec. 4   Bring Eclipsed.  Evaluations.

 Recommended introductory articles with bibliographies for further research:

New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, ed. Maryanne C. Horowitz (on-line through OASYS, hardcopy volumes at CB9 N49 2005 6 vols  at Main Floor Reference   Be sure to cite author and give page numbers in NDHI Each article has a bibliography.  "Machismo," "Mestizaje,"  "Identity, Multiple, Overview," "Identity Multiple: Asian-American,"  Identity Multiple: Jewish," "Women's Studies," "Feminism: Overview," "Feminisms: Africa and African Diaspora," "Feminism: Chicana Feminisms," "Feminism: Islamic Feminism," "Feminism: Third World U.S. Movement" "Womanism," "Anti-Feminism" "Family Planning," "Sexual Harassment"  "Human Rights/Women's Rights" "Philosophies Feminist, Twentieth Century," "Equality: Gender Equality,"  "Sexuality: Overview," "Sexuality: Islamic Views," "Sexuality: Sexual Orientation,  "Gender: Overview," "Gender: Gender in the Middle East," "Gender Studies," "Gender, History of,"  "Gay Studies,""QueerTheory," "Women and Femininity in U.S. Popular Culture," and "Men and Masculinity." 

Recommended: See Reference section HQ1111-HQ1904.

GenderWatch (ProQuest)
Full-text database of articles reports, pamphlets, papers and conference proceedings devoted to women's and gender issues.

POLICIES in Hist. 237

Essay Examinations: Medical note required for taking a makeup exam.

Missed Class: For any class missed (whether medical note or not), try to pass in by the Tuesday following the missed class your reading notes of readings discussed that day. The purpose is to keep up with the class.

Computers are encouraged in class for reference to an e-book or e-article or for note-taking, but for no other activities such as messaging, emailing, or browsing.



This Class Policies: Medical note required to miss exam or panel presentation. Paper preparation is long term with expectation of early drafts and later improvements; therefore paper-as-is must be passed in at paper deadline even if medical note allows a time extension for final draft.  Full attendance expected. Computers during class are only for note-taking and for looking at websites of this class.


The Writing Center (located on the Ground Floor of the Academic Commons) offers students from all disciplines two types of support to work on their writing: peer-to-peer, drop-in consultations with knowledgeable Writing Advisers, Sunday through Thursday from 7:00-11:00 p.m., and appointments with Faculty Writing Specialists from the Writing and Rhetoric department. Remember to bring your class paper assignment and your drafts to an appointment.  Information about the Writing Center and a link to the appointment system is on the WC website:


College Policy on Academic Honesty: Current policy at   This class helps prevent plagiarism by teaching you how to note either quoted or summarized in Endnotes, and Primary and Secondary Source Bibliographies in M.L.A. or University of Chicago Style (See guidebook by Turabian or Hacker).  It is appropriate to bring an early draft of your paper to faculty office hours to discuss whether you are properly putting reading into your own words and putting quotation marks when borrowing phrases, and whether you are making notation for both your summaries and your quotations.

College Policy on Disabilities: Students with documented disabilities who are registered with Disability Services are required to present their accommodation letter to the instructor at the beginning of each semester or as soon as possible thereafter. Any student who experiences significant physical or mental impairments may contact Disability Services at (323) 259-2969 to learn about available services and support.  More information is available at


Title IX Statement:

It is important for you to know that all faculty members are mandated reporters of any incidents of sexual misconduct. That means that I cannot keep information about sexual misconduct confidential if you share that information with me.


Marianne Frapwell, the Survivor Advocate, can advise you confidentially as can counselors at Emmons Wellness Center and Rev. Susan Young, Director of the Office of Religious & Spiritual Life. You can also contact counselors at the 24/7 Hotline 323-341-4141. Marianne can also help you access other resources on campus and in the local community. You can reach Marianne at 323-259-1359 or and her office is in Stewart-Cleland Hall Lower Lounge.

The sexual misconduct policy, along with additional resources, can be found at:

Students are expected to carefully read and abide by the rules of the Student Handbook.  The Handbook on-line has separate links for Academic Ethics, Code of Student Conduct, General College Policies, Res Ed & Housing Policies. 

Accomodations for Reasons of Faith and Conscience Statement: Consistent with Occidental College’s commitment to creating an academic community that is respectful of and welcoming to persons of differing backgrounds, we believe that students should be excused from class for reasons of faith and conscience without academic consequence.  While it is not feasible to schedule coursework around all days of conviction for a class as a whole, faculty will honor requests from individual students to reschedule coursework, to be absent from classes that conflict with the identified days.  Information about this process is available on the ORSL website: