Hellenistic Schools of Philosophy
Walking Visit to Athens in late 3rd Century BCE
West of walls of city, road to Diplon Gate: Academy, Garden
In Agora, Stoa
East of walls of city, Lyceum
Philosophies attributed back to Founders.
What is the highest good? What leads to Eudaemonia, Happiness?
Aristotelian Lyeum Balanced Life of virtue, pleasure, material goods, friendship; therefore aristocrats are better equipped for attaining the highest good.
Golden Mean-courage between recklessness and cowardice. Sexism in golden mean as
different standards of virtue for male and female
Epicurean Garden Highest good is Pleasure. What kind of pleasures are best? Alternative portraits of Epicurus.
Stoic School Highest good is Virtue. Conform human will to universal natural moral law. Slaves and Aristocrats equally capable of attaining highest good.
Middle Academy of Carneades Academic skeptics say “I do not know.” Too hard to attain knowledge of Plato’s forms. One cannot know universal natural moral law. Carneades teaches probabilism—cast all in doubt, accept likely view tentatively.
Academy, founded by Plato, 387 BCE and continues until Justinian closes it in 529 CE
Republic (Allegory of the Cave on reality of Forms or Ideas; Tripartite Psyche: reason=Philosopher Kings, spirit = Guardians, appetites= Workers).
Crito (on obeying unjust law or decree)
Academy Sceptical under Carneades 213-129 BCE (influences Cicero 106-43 BCE)
Plato’s Apology (Socrates speech at his trial on role as gadfly), dialectical method
Academy Neoplatonistic under Plotinus (205-270 CE)
influences mysticism of Augustine
Lyceum, founded by Aristotle, 335 BCE
Politics (6 forms of government; deliberative faculty in men, women and slaves), Nicomachean Ethics (golden mean); also wrote biological works such as On the Generation of Animals
Most influential school on Thomas Aquinas and 13th century universities
The Garden, founded by Epicurus, ca. 306 BCE
Fragments of Epicurus
Lucretius, On the Nature of Things
The Stoa, founded by Zeno, ca. 304 BCE
Chryssipus (280-207 BCE)
Influenced Romans Cicero and Seneca