Prof. Maryanne Horowitz
Age of Encounters
History 226, Spring 2014







Prof. Maryanne Horowitz
Class Meets: MWF 1:55-2:50 p.m., Weingart 210
Office: Swan 314, 323-259-2583 (For messages, best to leave message on email) Office hours 8:00-9:20 a.m. Mon & Fri and by appointment
Horowitz Homepage    Use updated syllabus on-line: From homepage, go to courses, then hist. 226.

Campus mail to Horowitz mailbox, 
Hist. Dept., S. Swan

      e-mail horowitz@oxy.edu

Sign up for Sun. Jan. 26 Trip to Getty Center, leaves fountain at 9 a.m.—returns by 2:30 p.m. (Oxy program for encounters in Los Angeles)


To gain familiarity with major events, people, and movements in the history of early modern times

To learn basic methods of historical investigation, particularly analysis of textual and visual sources.

To develop skills in historical argument, writing, and oral presentation.

Students who would like to write a research paper might sign up for this course as Hist. 397.  Hist 226 has two short papers based mainly on in-class readings.

226 - The Age of Encounters

As the early modern network of trade shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic Ocean, the Portuguese, the Spanish, the French, the Dutch, and the English competed for trade and for colonization of peoples newly encountered. We shall evaluate Renaissance arts and letters, traveler reports and images of peoples of South America, and Protestant Christianity and the Catholic Counter-Reformation with subsequent competition among missionaries and European states for converts around the globe. We shall discuss amusing short satires by the most famous Northern humanist and humorist Erasmus, protests on cruelty of Las Casas, and empirical scientist Bacon's scientific utopia New Atlantis within the genre of utopian travel literature. Students may petition for 300-level credit for this class with the completion of additional work arranged with the instructor.


Books in Bookstore:  (Some on reserve also)

Robin Winks And Lee Wandel,  Europe in a Wider World    Oxford pb.  (abbreviation below: Wider World)

Lisa Jardine, Worldly Goods: A New History of the Renaissance

Famous Utopias of the Renaissance, ed. F. White (Hendricks House)

Jerry Brotten and Lisa Jardine, Global Interests: Renaissance Art between East and West.


Go directly to Moodle  for Reserve List. One can economize by using class books through reserve. Books one retrieve at Circulation desk of library.  Electronic Reserves class members may view or print anytime.  Some items of the Reserve List are required on syllabus. Some lectures emphasize Jerry Brotton, Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World, 1997  Cornell UP. (reserve) (abbreviation Mapping) and Patricia Seed, Ceremonies of Possession (reserve)
 On-line, download free, and in library stacks: best-sellers of early modern times such as

 Desiderius Erasmus, The Praise of Folly and other Writings, Norton pb.; Erasmus, Colloquies   (short handout first day), Machiavelli, The Prince (  Machiavelli,  The Prince with Related Document, ed. Connell, Bedford pb. or other editions in library.



Percentages in Grade

20% Class participation, including attendance, presentations on recommended readings, progress on papers (including oral presentations), comments on other students' ideas and historical arguments.

20%  Paper 1. Due  Fri. Feb. 14. 4 pages plus Univ. of Chicago endnotes  See preparatory assignment due dates on syllabus.  1)  Erasmus had subtle ways of critiquing European society and its institutions. Montaigne also in “On Cannibals” comments on Europeans as well as Amerindians. Both were influential "public intellectuals" as we would call such authors today.  Discuss the ways each author critically analyzed Europeans, showing both similarities and differences. Cite specific examples, raising issues of how to interpret.  Your paper is a  focus on analysis of primary sources and may use other writings of these two authors. If you need additional secondary readings beyond class books and discussion, you may include up to 2 endnoted articles and 2 books and 2 encyclopedia articles. (Fine to read Montaigne “On Cannibals” in Frame's or Screech's recent translations of Essays with critical notes.)  OR

2) Reserve reading has a section on Renaissance Diplomacy—both documents of diplomacy and historical analysis of the traits of Renaissance diplomacy.  Include both types of readings as you present current understanding of the workings of diplomats particularly in the 15th and 16th centuries.  You may focus in on a case study.


20%  Paper 2. Due Wed. April 16    See preparatory assignment due dates on syllabus.  4 pages plus Univ. of Chicago endnotes. Narrow your focus to your specific concern or question in social history or intellectual history. You may cite class books and up to 2 endnoted articles and 2 books and 2 encyclopedia articles. Include a xerox of at least 1 image (maximum 4 images) with a list of figures. 

1) Present your interpretation of  Francis Bacon's New Atlantis while responding to at least 4 of 9 authors in Bronwen Price, ed., Francis Bacon's NEW ATLANTIS: New Interdisciplinary Essays (Some individual articles scanned separately)  (Reserve)                      OR 

2) Focus on an issue of controversy in early modern cartography.  Compare specific early modern maps. Discuss similarities and differences and explain the reasons for the differences. Use Jerry Brotton, Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World (reserve, some chapters assigned) as a model for writing on early modern cartography. Newberry Library has many cartographical images organized for student use.

 3) Analyze the role of visuals in education in Campanella’s City of the Sun in Famous Utopias or compare and contrast Campanella’s utopia with Bacon’s utopia.

(Chris Gilman, who visited our class, is available for instruction on displays in Crossroads, as well as on Media Wall.)

Library of Congress also has maps organized for student use; below is on age of exploration:

10%  Essay Exam 1  Fri. Feb. 28, typing on PCs, room to be announced.

30%  Final Essay Exam  typing on PCs, room to be announced.

These papers teach skills in evaluating historical interpretations and in analyzing primary sources. Apply form for document or image analysis to enhance your critical analysis. Pass in two typed copies 12 point, Times New Roman, Double Space, at beginning of class.  Prepare papers on a wordprocessing program for easy revision. Regularly backup your disk. Keep a  hard copy and the disk at least until final  grades are received. Endnotes and Bibliography for historians accord with Chicago Manual of Style.  Hacker, A Writer’s Reference, 7th edition, discusses The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition, 2010) on pp. 510-537:  follow no. 4 for citing work by multiple authors and follow no. 13 for citing work in an anthology. While a bibliography is alphabetized by last name, an endnote should always begin with the first name and then the last name of the author of the sentences quoted or paraphrased. You may cite a student or faculty comment with approximate date (such as from a student report showing student's interpretation with which you agree or disagree).  The first name that appears in an endnote is the author you are citing: examples include an author of an article in an edited book or an author of a primary source quoted by a secondary source, or a faculty member lecture or a student who expressed an interesting viewpoint in Hist 226, Occidental College, on a specific date in spring 2014 

Center for Academic Excellence sponsors Peer Writing Advisors who invite you to bring an early draft of your paper with the assignment instructions above.

·  Phone: (323) 259-2545

·  Office: Academic Commons, Ground Floor

Additonal work for hist. 397 students: Students enrolling as Hist. 397 are required to do the first paper  and to replace the second paper assignment by a research paper of 15 pages including endnotes, as well as bibliography divided into primary and secondary sources.  At the time of the 2nd paper due date, 7 pages plus endnotes and bibliography and a sentence outline of research paper are due. The entire paper is due Monday, April 28.  For Hist. 397, the final exam will count 20% and the research paper will count 30%.

If you have specific physical or learning differences that require accommodations, you will need to provide documentation of your disability to the Coordinator of Academic support Services, who can be reached at (323) 259-2969. The Coordinator will then send accommodation information to me. You must work with the Coordinator early in the semester so that your needs may be appropriately met.  It is your responsibility to give the Coordinator plenty of time to secure appropriate accommodations for you.

College Policy on Academic Honesty: Current policy at   This class helps prevent plagiarism by teaching you how to endnote either quoted or summarized material in Univ. of Chicago format.

Computers are encouraged in classroom for reference to your reading notes, electronic readings or for class notetaking (not email, not browsing).

 Important Dates in Bold in syllabus.

Best Sellers of the early modern times (primary sources), particularly satires, utopias, and political advice. In class discussion, we'll have opportunities to consider multiple ways of interpreting the works, and in examination we'll have a chance to compare utopian visions and to compare satiric techniques of ridiculing one's own society.

Participation: Bring appropriate book and your reading notes on day indicating discussion. Use Document Analysis Form to help contextualize primary texts and images.

  #Top of page 









Schedule (to be updated on-line to adapt to student interests) Bring book to be discussed on that day.


      Material evidence: SATIRES (ancient genre applied to early modern human behavior)

WEEK 1) Wider World, Preface & pp. 73-80 on “Printing, Thought and Literature” as reference Chronology pp. 218-223, Fine Arts, pp. 88-93.

W Jan. 22  Discussion of Student Interests (some adjustment of syllabus possible to accomodate interests)  1450 as Turning Point. The Turks Conquering Constantinople, the Invention of the  Printing Press, & The Spread of the Renaissance Northward.  2-actor reading of colloquy "The Abbot and the Learned Lady"

F. Jan 24   Renaissance Humanism and Erasmus and Montaigne as Great Northern Humanists.  Bring your marked up handout of excerpt of Praise of Folly, and of "Charon” Colloquies. 


WEEK 2)  Erasmus, Colloquies, section of Praise of Folly;  Wider World, ch 1 “Late Middle Ages in Eastern Europe, pp. 51-54 on Spain and Chapter 4 on Exploration and Expansion, maps p. 20, 102, 162, 170. Read Wider World, ch. 2 “The Rise of the Nation” and complete ch. 3 “The Renaissance” focusing on “a money economy”  “Science and religion: and “art of daily living” Read Montaigne, “On the Cannibals” and Gonzalo’s speech from Shakespeare’s The Tempest in Famous Utopias. Also handout on Montaigne: "On Cruelty," "On Coaches"


M. Jan. 27  Social critics: Erasmus's Colloquies in 16th century classrooms. Examples of proverbs in Brueghel's The Netherlandish Proverbs  Student analysis of “Charon” by Erasmus in Ten Colloquies.


 W. Jan Jan 29.  Student explanation of Brueghel’s proverbs. Bring Wider World for analysis of maps. 1500 French map of Europe. Intro. to Columbian Exchange (google those 2 words)


F Jan. 31  Lecture “Sending Ambassadors or Demanding Submission in Early Modern Times” Continue discussion of Wider World: Revival of Ptolemy, inventions, political competition, and commerce as sources of explorations.


WEEK 3)  Wider World, pp. 51-54, on Las Casas 116, 206-207  See The Other Conquest on Cortes and Aztecs, an encounter of a friar and an indigenous scribe (reserve) Wider World, ch. 1. “Late Middle Ages and Eastern Europe Recommended: “Seed,  Ceremonies of Possession (reserve) on alternative national paths to dispossessing indigenous peoples.


M. Feb. 3 Discussion of The Other Conquest   Discuss Las Casas's views of Spaniards/Europeans/Christians   ArtSTOR images of Machu Picchu (indicates Inca architecture not discovered/destroyed by Europeans as discovered in early 20th century) (Use Oxy email and password to look again at ArtSTOR).


W Feb. 5 Discuss Las Casas's views of Amerindians.   Lecture “Las Casas vs. Sepulveda's Debate on Humanity”

At beginning of class pass in 2 copies of  thesis statement and bibliography divided into primary and secondary sources for paper 1.


F Feb 7  America, un Mundo Nuevo  (47 minutes Spanish with English subtitles)  Compare viewpoint of this "educational" video with The Other Conquest.


WEEK 4) Jardine and Brotton, Global Interests: Renaissance Art between East and West, ch 1 Introduction. Wider World

Feb. 10 Medieval heritage of two rulers: church and state

W Feb 12  Bring a paper draft to share with another student for comments.  Lecture on  Seed, Ceremonies of Possession on alternative paths for dispossessing indigenous peoples (see reserve section), as in Pope Alexander VI's dividing the globe between Portugal and Spain

F Feb. 14   Rise of Byzantium and European Challenges for Trading with the East   Paper 1 due in 2 copies at beginning of class. Bring Global Interests. Lecture on “Telling Tales in Abraham Ortelius” (images at Horowitz website) exercise on “Telling Tales”


Material evidence: MAPS (of real and imaginary places and peoples) & CASE STUDIES IN DIPLOMACY


WEEK 5) Global Interests, ch. 2 “Telling Tapestries” Europe in a Wider World, ch. 5 “The Age of Reformation” Read to complete

Europe in a Wider World, chs 2-3.


W Feb. 19  Student paragraphs due on student papers. In a paragraph, indicate thesis and evidence to support thesis.  Consider whether paper refutes any other alternative viewpoints.  Bring Global Interests—discussion of ch. 1.  Continuation of lecture on “Telling Tales in Abraham Ortelius  handout of bibliography and of translations especially on map of paganism in Russia and among Tartars.

F Feb. 20 Discussion of Global Interests, ch. 2.  Lecture on “Brotten Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World (on reserve),  ch. 4, on diplomacy on Spice Islands   Lecture: “Ortelius’s first 3 historical map for 1579 edition” (Oxy’s).


WEEK 6) Wider World, ch. 6 “The Great Powers in Conflict” (for general reading, no IDs on ch. 6 on this exam)

M Feb. 24 Rewrites due with marked earlier papers. 

Guest Lecture: Prof. Huss Banai, DWA, "Official Encounters: The Persian Ambassadors in Europe, 1599-1602"


 W Feb.26. Review for exam. Format for typing at college PCs: 25 minute essay (films, Erasmus, Las Casas, Montaigne) and 5 IDs (pick 1 out of 2) mainly on Wider World, aspects emphasized in lecture and in Global Interests chs. 1, 2.  Bring in a sample 2 paragraphs on your choice--relate 1 very specific item to a general movement or to another item (use document analysis form above). Feedback on how to improve for the exam on question you designed.


**F Feb. 28 Exam  Review Winks & Wandel, chs. 1-5 and maps, chronology; Global Interests ch. 1 & 2, 2 contrasting films, Primary source Readings & handouts, Class Presentations, Discussions Use our Fowler 110 computers on Exam.  Review class notes from lecture and discussion  (fine to discuss with another student —Great Attendance, thanks!!!).  Review readings (especially topics emphasized in class) and notes on films.  


WEEK 7)  Start reading Bacon, New Atlantis in Famous Utopias Email from NDHI on-line, Oasys, articles on "Idea of Progress" and on "Experiment"-see section on Bacon.   Brotton, Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World, ch 5 (on reserve) (Mercator and Ortelius )


M. March 3 Introduction to Francis Bacon: Scientific Revolution and Utopianism.   How to use Syntopicon of Great Books set and specialized encyclopedias. Sign up for l article on Bacon to report on Friday. Lecture “Role of Imagination in Montaigne and Bacon”


W March 5 Lecture: “Origins of Exotic Lady Continents of Ortelius and the late 17th century addition of a Turbaned Male in David Teniers III’s Cartoons for Tapestries.”


 F March 7  Start discussion of interpretations of Bacon. Discuss interpretatons of Bacon's utopia in Bronwen Price, ed., Francis Bacon's NEW ATLANTIS: New Interdisciplinary Essays or other ones you have found.  (assigned from reserve)   


Spring Break.  Read and analyze Francis Bacon, New Atlantis (in Famous Utopias, you will be considering: To what extent are Montaigne's "On Cannibals" and Bacon's New Atlantis based on travelogues?  or are they mainly works of fiction stimulated by their age of encounters? Fine to use critical editions or secondary sources.


8) Brotton, complete Global Interests, ch. 3 “Managing the Infidel: Equestrian Art in Its Mettle”


M. March 17 Meet in Special Collections for hands-on workshop with early books and maps.

 W March 19  Student discussion of Brotten Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World (on reserve),Mapping, ch. 5 on Mercator and Ortelius.   Lecture: “Triumphal Processions: Bodleian Author Procession and John Speed’s map tour of Great Britain both pleased King James I”


 F March 21 Lecture: “Elizabeth Eisenstein, Printing Press as an Agent of Change” 




WEEK 9) Office hours W. instead of F this week.  Wider World, ch. 6 “The Great Powers in Conflict” Topic:  Wars between Protestants and Catholics: new religious map of Europe and the globe.   Lisa Jardine, Worldly Goods, Preface, Prologue, ch. 1. Start Campanella, City of the Sun.

M. March 24 Argue your view of Bacon, New Atlantis, from your reading of text and in argument with other scholars' views.  Relations of science and arts in considering Vermeer.   


W March 26. Film Girl  with Pearl Earring Film is a social history bringing to life Vermeer painting in a small town of the Low Countries (geographic term for area now Belgium and Netherlands) Many of the images come from his paintings. Others you've met from the Low Countries are Erasmus, Brueghel, and Ortelius. Issue is close observation including magnification and intimacy.

      F March 28  Film Girl  with Pearl Earring  (100 minutes in all. Return it to library where remains on reserve)


WEEK 10) Lisa Jardine, Worldly Goods, chs. 2-3. Complete Campanella, City of the Sun.

 M March 31 Bring Jardine to discuss.  Comments on Girl with a Pearl Earring.

W April 2  Bring text for discussion of Campanella, especially of teaching through visuals.

   F April 4 Bring 2 early modern maps of same geographical area (fine from Brooten or another book or projected on-line, or from ArtSTOR). Analyze differences between the two maps' interpretations. 



WEEK 11) Lisa Jardine, Worldly Goods, chs. 4-5.

M April 7  "Visual Order to Organizing Collections” in New Dictionary of the History of Ideas: images of Urbino portraits and fake inlaid wood cabinets, Isabelle d'Este's inlaid cabinets which did store her antiquities, Caesar Travelling  humanist Library,  Circular Paduan Renaissance botanical garden influencing 19th century national libraries,  Phillip II'S library with subject personifications above wall bookcases, modern ancient Greek-style temples (libraries and museums), tower of books (Montaigne) in new Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.


W April 9 Pass in thesis statement and bibliography for paper 2. 

F April 11   The Baroque in Netherlands ## (For reference to images, see Janson's, ch.  20).  


WEEK 12) Lisa Jardine, Worldly Goods, chs. 6-7. Machiavelli, selections of The Prince, chs. 15-19 (on-line fine as in


M April 14 Lecture on Machiavelli and Machiavellianism”

**W April 16 Paper 2 Due in 2 copies.

 F. April 18 Oral presentations and discussion of paper 2.


WEEK 13) Lisa Jardine, Worldly Goods, chs. 8 and Epilogue

M April 21 Discuss Jardine in full.

W April 23  The Black Robe Analysis of French in Canada and of diverse indigenous tribes

F April 25  The Black Robe  


WEEK 14) M April 28 Review for Final.  Analyze theses of separate chapters of Jardine & Brotton, Global Interests; and analyze Jardine’s Worldly Goods for its unified thesis. 

W April 30 Last class.  Lecture “Historical Issues on Defining Renaissance and Early Modern with attention to Age of Encounters.” Consider how analyzing antiquity helped or hindered scholars in analysis other civilizations on the globe.

Be able to critically analyze interpretation of textbook Worldly Goods and interpretations of distinct lectures. (relate special collections event to lecture on printing press; relate seeing specific atlases directly or at website to lectures to specific lectures on an atlas)

Be able to contextualize as reflecting their times (including fad for utopias and for travelogues) Bacon, New Atlantis and Campanella, City of the Sun.

For Vermeer, know his approaches to painting and the paintings "Girl with a Pearl Earring" and "The Allegory of Painting" which has map on wall, and "View of Delft."

Read full handouts on Montaigne, Machiavelli selection on-line, and reserve items assigned (Brotton on Mercator and Ortelius for example)

Study history of Spain, Portugal, Holy Roman Empire,  France (Montaigne, Black Robe), England (Bacon, Speed), Low Countries (Ortelius in Antwerp, Vermeer in Delft) in  Europe in a Wider World. Textbook by Winks and Wandel short and condensed--master and relate internal history of a country to history of its colonial expansion. Last chapter, ch. 6, is eligible for ID questions.


[information to inspire future research: publishers adding Theodor De Bry's images of cannibals to travelogues. Ortelius updating his maps. Some later updates inaccurate like California as island 1620-early 18th century including Speed, Prospect Of the Most Famous Parts of the World,1627.]


Wed April 30 office hour that morning instead of Friday.  Final Exam typing in a computer room. 

List of Films to analyze:

Hour exam:

The Other Conquest 

 America, un Mundo Nuevo  with subtitles 50 minute video


       The Black Robe

Girl with a Pearl Earring