Prof. Maryanne Horowitz
Europe, 1450-1715
History 326, Spring 2007



Prof. Maryanne Horowitz
Class Meets: M,W, F 11:30-12:25   Location: Johnson 104
Office: Swan 316 323-259-2583 (for messages, best to leave message on email)
Office Hours: W. 2:30-4:25, F 12:30-1:25 and by appointment
Horowitz Homepage    Use updated syllabus on-line: From homepage, go to courses, then hist. 326.

Campus mail to Horowitz mailbox, 
Hist. Dept., S. Swan 


See list of readings at the reserve  desk of the library.

Books in Bookstore:

Eugene Rice and Anthony Grafton Foundations of Early Modern Europe 1460-1559. 2nd edNorton pb.

Paul Kléber Monod, The Power of Kings: Monarchy and Religion in Europe, 1589-1715  Yale pb.

Desiderius Erasmus, The Praise of Folly and other Writings, Norton 

Perez Zagorin, How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West  Princeton pb

 John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration

See Reserves and Electronic Reserves: Some items required on syllabus, others recommended.

25% each:
1) Attendance & participation including short written assignments 2) Midterm essay exam in 2 class hours; 3)Final exam Wed. May 9,8:30-11:30 a.m.4) 8 page paper plus endnotes and bibliography on historical controversy. Suggestion sheet handed out first day of class.
For endnotes and bibliography use Univ. of Chicago style as in   or

If you have specific physical or learning disabilities and require accommodations, please let me know early in the semester so that your learning needs may be appropriately met.  You will need to provide documentation of your disability to Linda Whitney, Coordinator of Academic Support Services, Center for Academic Excellence.


In papers, include citations to student comments in class (name, date), documents and interpretations within class readings, library books, footnoted articles in journals or in on-line journals as in Wilson Select under First Search at the  Occidental College Library Homepage.
For example, use resources in my Renaissance Sites.
Students are encouraged to share information on sources by URL or by giving author, article title, journal title, volume (year), pages (indicate if in library or how available on-line by a specific search engine)

  #Top of page 



1)      1450 as Turning Point to Early Modernity

Read and bring Foundations of Early Modern Europe (abbreviation Foundations), preface, intro., chs. 1-3.

M. Jan. 22 Introduction to Europe, 1450-1715 and to our class books.

W Jan. 24   Bring Rice. "Lecture: 1450 as Turning Point. The Turks Conquering Constantinople, the Printing Press, & The Spread of the Renaissance Northward"

F. Jan 26 Bring Erasmus Praise of Folly and Other Writings.  Lecture "High Renaissance Art in Italy" (For reference to images, see on Reserve Janson's History of Art, ch. 16). Introduction to Erasmus.

Peter Bruegel the Elder, The Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559

2)     The European Renaissance in Art and Ideas, 1450-1520

  Read Foundations, ch. 4.  Bring Erasmus Praise of Folly and Other Writings (abbreviation Erasmus) each day this week (assignments below). Recommended on reserve Kathleen Williams, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretation of The Praise of Folly.

M. Jan. 28  Bring Erasmus. Individual students present viewpoint of Trevor-Roper, Allen, Huizinga, Bakhtin, Kristeller and Adams (pp. 265-338)   Then group work on Colloquies of Erasmus

W. Jan. 31  Student Presentations from Erasmus "Abbot and the Learned Lady,"  pp. 222-227 and "The Alchemy Scam", pp. 175-180.Discuss "Julius Excluded from Heaven," on Pope Julius II, pp. 142-173.

F. Feb.2  An Interpretation of Luther. Start individual analysis of  Praise of Folly.

3)   Contrasting Approaches of Erasmus and Luther  See Film "Luther"  

M. Feb. 5  Read Foundations, ch. 5. Meet in Special Collections, 3rd floor of library to see Sixteenth Century Books.

W. Feb. 7  Bring and discuss Erasmus, Praise of Folly, pp. 6-88.  Compare and contrast Erasmus and Luther in tone, approach, and impact.

F.  Feb.  9 Lecture "Renaissance and Reformation in 16th Century Northern European Art" (For reference to images, see on Reserve Janson's History of Art, ch. 18)   Pass in 2 copies of your summary of assigned l document in electronic reserve Kingdon, "Was the Protestant Reformation a Revolution? The Case of Geneva." 2nd copy will be on reserve for class use for assignment due Fri. Feb. 16.

4)  Imagination vs. Document as Paths to Understanding the 16th Century

Read on electronic reserve Robert M. Kingdon "Was the Protestant Reformation a Revolution?  The Case of Geneva" and analyze the documents he includes as evidence. Read on electronic reserve Palmer and Colton, "The Disintegration and Reconstruction of France," pp. 134-140 Read Foundations, ch. 6.

M. Feb. 12 Class to meet in Brown Lab, main floor of lifbrary.  Library Workshop with Marla Peppers to help you find more recent sources on your controversial issue. All Students make Brief Presentations on Book Chosen for Paper Topic. Raise issues of interest.  Also bring your printout of Kingdon, “Was the Protestant Reformation a Revolution? The case of Geneva” and raise any questions for Feb. 16 assignment.

W. Feb. 14 Film on France of 16th century. 133 minutes total. Ever After.

F. Feb. 16  Film continues Ever After.   Email to Prof. Horowitz by 5 p.m 2 pages doublespace statement & endnotes on your interpretation of whether Geneva marked a Protestant Revolution or a Protestant Reformation. Make Univ. of Chicago endnotes to article by Kingdon, individual documents, and to Foundations. Exercise will help you analyze primary sources as evidence of historical interpretation in your paper assignment.

5) Toward the New Monarchies of 17th Century

Read on electronic reserve Palmer and Colton, "The Crusade of Catholic Spain: The Dutch and English," pp. 124-133; Palmer and Colton, "The Grand Monarch and the Balance of Power; The Dutch Republic," pp. 160-169. Palmer and Colton is background for the more advanced book by Monod.

Read Monod  Intro pp.2-9, 25-31 and ch. 2 1589-1610. Always read Monod with his endnotes to see how he documents primary and secondary sources; follow same technique in your paper.

M. Feb. 19 Holiday

W. Feb. 21 Lecture:  "Sovereignty in Rebuilding the French State: Bodin, Richelieu, Mazarin and the Fronde"

 F. Feb. 23  Bring Monod. for analyzing images. Introduction to Monod's The Power of Kings

6) England: King and Parliament

Read on electronic reserve Palmer and Colton, "Britain: The Puritan Revolution,"  pp. 169-181.Read Monod ch. 3 1610-1637 and Intro, "Sacred State, Sacred Self,"  pp. 9-24 (shows theoretical influences on Monod's methodology)

M. Feb. 26 Michael Wood, Art of the Western World Video: "Realms of light"

W. Feb. 28 Lecture: "England of the Tudors and Stuarts"   

F. March 2 Bring Monod---what is his interpretation of England in 17th century?  Lecture: "The English Revolution" 

  #Top of page 

7) Exam March 7 & 9 and Background to Persecutions   Review. Be prepared to write on Erasmus in detail and how Renaissance contributed to Reformation; master all of Foundations of Early Modern Europe, other assignments and lectures. Draw on images in lectures and books, as well as on documents.

M. March 5  Precedents for Persecution. Read Zagorin, preface and chapters 1 and 2.  Heritage: Civilization and the Jews, part 4, The crucible of Europe (9th to the 15th centuries). 

W. March 7 Essay Exam: Focus on Renaissance to Reformation, Erasmus, Luther, Calvin.  Oxy’s Mid-Term

F. March 9  Essay Exam: Everything else we studied.
Spring Break March 12-16

8)  Persecution and Beginnings of Toleration

M. March 19 Lecture on "Why idea of toleration was so difficult to achieve: Precedents in Hebrew conquest of Canaan, Roman State-Established Religion, and Roman Catholic persecution of heretics in late antiquity and in High Middle Ages."

W. March 21 Discuss Zagorin, chs. 1, 2, 3 and 4.

F. March 23 Lecture "The Baroque in Netherlands" (For reference to images, see Janson's, ch.  20).

9) The Netherlands and England  Advising Week 

M. March 26 Film on Vermeer  Girl with a Pearl Earring. Pass in Paper Title with Primary and Secondary Source Bibliography in Univ. of Chicago format. Secondary Sources should include some recent articles from  historical journals.

W. March 28  Finish Film. Girl with a Pearl Earring  Last Day for Dropping Classes. Completion of Baroque lecture, esp. Rembrandt.  Bring and discuss Zagorin, chs. 5 Toleration Controversy in Netherlands.

F. March 30 Bring and discuss Zagorin, continue ch. 5 and  ch. 6 The Great English Toleration Controversy 1640-1660.

Discussion of Toleration and Freedom of Speech & Press during English Civil War.

10) Locke and Bayle

Read on electronic reserve Wiesner, Ruff, and Wheeler, "Science and Religion Confront Eighteenth-Century Natural Disaster,"  pp. 52-81.

M. April 2 Bring and discuss Zagorin, chs. 7-8  Brief Student Presentations    Pass in a paragraph Abstract of your paper, attaching specific interpretations to specific historians. Pass in Bib. again; pass in returned bib.

W. April 4   See Black Robe.Abba Eban, on French Jesuits and Algonquins, first 55 minutes. Pass in 2 copies to Horowitz mailbox of 2 typed pages on evidence of changing views about miracle in documents in Wiesner, Ruff, and Wheeler.

F. April 6    Bring and discuss assignments in ch 6 and  Locke, "A Letter Concerning Toleration," pp. 113-153. Relate Locke's views to other thinkers discussed in Zagorin.

11) Reassessing Absolutism

Read on electronic reserve Palmer and Colton, "France of Louis XIV," pp. 182-197Read Monod ch. 4  1637-1660

M. April 9 Student Presentations

W. April 11 Lecture:  Louis XIV, "Absolute" arbiter of taste, etiquette, and design (slides, especially of Versailles)

Fr. April 13  Student Presentations

12) Reassessing Theory of Representation

Read Monod ch. 5  1660-1690; Read Locke, pp. 1-67.

M. April 16  Discuss exercise on science and miracle; Monod.

W. April 19 Continued discussion of Monod.

F. April 20 Bring and Discuss Locke, The Second Treatise of Government  pp. 1-67

13)  Politics in Europe in 1715

Read and analyze Locke.

M. April 23 Rewrites of science and miracle exercise accepted for regrading. Bring and discuss Locke, The Second Treatise of Government pp.  68- 112

W. April 25 Political Situation at Beginning of Eighteenth Century (includes important points of Monod Ch. 6)

F. April 27  Paper Due in Two Copies. See Requirements above and handout of paper assignment.

14) The Emergence of Secular Space:  Religious Fanaticism vs. Toleration; The King's Touch vs. Sovereignty

Read Monod, ch. 6 and Conclusion.

M. April 30 Review art lectures, notes. Michael Wood, Art of the Western World Video. An age of reason, an age of passion. Bring Monod to discuss visual evidence of transformation in images of royalty.

W. May 2 Evaluations.  Bring Monod, Locke, and Zagorin. Christian rulers in the 16th and 17th century showed close identification with the sacred as a basis of authority, yet there emerged ideas of a sovereign rational state, of toleration, and of representative government. Major themes documented by visual evidence include: women's domesticity in art of the Low Countries, representing political authority visually-print, painting, architecture, decorative arts (monarchs, as well as assemblies); combining the political and the religious in representation of monarchs; contrast of state of nature (Algonquins) vs. French civilization (libertine & Jesuit); emphasizing miracle via Baroque divine light. Instructions for Final Exam.

May 3 Oxy last day for withdraws from class.

Final exam by Wed. May 9 concludes 11:30 a.m.(pass in via email by then) ( 15 Senior Grades Due.  20 Oxy graduation)