REVIEW for Exam 1, Hist. 224  March 9 (Revision of May 9 morning, with student input at Review session, 4-5, March 8)   Mon. March 20 2:30-4:30. By 4:40 I anticipate showing silent images of photos of individuals responding to museum displays, while some students finish up their exams. By 5:10 we’ll talk. Class will go until 5:25.


There will not be any questions on the exam that are not on this review sheet. The exact wording might be improved some for the exam.  There will be some choice among questions (at least 1 of 2 questions). Some questions will allow choice within of specific examples.  There will be either 3 30-minute questions and 2 15-minute questions or 4 30-minute questions.


Hints: Use Hooper-Greenhill’s index to pull together all she says about Piero de’ Medici, Francesco I de Medici, Camillo, and some other topics mentioned for review.

Cite documents at back of Gabreille van Zuylen’s concise garden book; texts, as well as images, are evidence that support historical arguments.



Write well, supporting your points with detailed examples.  Each paragraph should have l generalization (topical sentence) supported by specific examples. For the next generalization, start a new paragraph.


I. Present distinctive stages in the history of gardens (mainly from Gabrielle van Zuylen) Pick 3.

     Roman gardens at villas (ancient and replicas of ancient) and indebtness to Greece

    In texts, as well as in courtyards, either Islamic gardens or the Christian “enclosed garden.”

   Padua Botanical Garden (also in class slide lecture)

   a Renaissance garden (choose among Pitti Palace Garden, Vatican Gardens, or gardens of Villa d’Este at Tivoli)

   Impact of Salomon de Caus, Le Nôtre, and Le Brun on Versailles Gardens




 You have become familiar with the interpretation by Hooper-Greenhill (her first case-study) and the interpretation by Horowitz of Piero de’ Medici’s study in the Medici Palace, Via Largo, Florence (lecture based on Horowitz article in Viator now on electronic reserves.)  Making distinctions between what is based on reasonable evidence and what is up for interpretation, describe the room, what it contained, how it functioned in the lives of the Medici. What is the room’s significance in the history of museums?


Compare and contrast the rooms called “studies” and collecting habits of two individuals of the Italian Renaissance (description of room, what room contained, functions of this room in relationship to other rooms in palace)

Piero de’ Medici in Florence

Federico da Montefeltra in Urbino and Gubbio

Francesco I, de Medici



  Tell me about the curiousity cabinet (or irrational cabinet, wunderkammer) particularly utilizing Hooper-Greenhill ch. 4 (entitled "The Irrational Cabinet"). Consider small cabinets that might rest on a table, large furniture cabinets that were a major focal point of a Renaissance room, as well as a much larger curiousity--either Camillo’s Memory  Theatre (discussed in Hooper-Greenhilll and  Mack) or the Pitti Palace Garden (mainly from slide lecture; do not pick Pitti if you pick it in another question)



Utilizing especially Hooper-Greenhill, chs. 5 & 6, tell me about the cabinet of the world.  Consider the study of Francesco I de Medici, Quiccheberg’s  classification system,  the Schloss Ambras Kunstkammer and the Kunstkammer of Rudolf II at Prague Castle, and be sure to analyze the Repository of the Royal Society in England for its differences from previous collections and for its work on universal language schemes.


In  ch. 7, Hooper-Greenhill focuses on the Louvre  to show the emergence of the “disciplinary museum.” Some other scholars simply start their history of museums with the Louvre. Describe the characteristics of the “disciplinary museum” through the example of the Louvre.



IV. Argue with Hooper-Greenhill’s view that the Medici Palace was the first museum of Europe. In particular, argue for ancient or medieval libraries as museums and argue for reliquaries or temples filled with sacred objects as museums. Be as specific as you can in citing examples. Nevertheless, in what ways were Renaissance rooms of collection different from these preceding collections?


V. Either of the first 2 could be reduced to 2-3 examples for 15 minutes.

Discuss Mack, especially chs. 2-3,  Discuss at least 3-4 distinctive examples of objects in the British Museum (as well as 1-2 from the Getty Villa, at least 5 in all) which functioned as memory devices in their respective cultures. In the culture from which the object originated, what was the participant supposed to do with the object? (Today in museums, observers mainly look at objects or read/hear about the objects. The Getty Villa has lots of “don’t touch” signs.)


Discuss Mack, especially ch. 4 and ch. 5 and Getty Villa, Funerary monuments, at least 5 in all. Describe the funerary monuments to individuals. Consider ancient Egypt, ancient Rome, and other times and places in the world.


VI. Either of these could be 15 minutes, by omitting something from question. First is  also a good topic for takehome after we have read more of Duncan and experienced more museums personally.


Explain the ritual character of the museum experience according to Duncan. Define and explain “liminality,” “aesthetic experience,” “monumental ceremonial structures,” and changing strategies of display in art museums (Tate Gallery, London, and National Gallery, Washington D.C.)


Visit to Norton Simon Museum, Getty Villa, and Duncan, ch. 4. Consider Sir Richard Wallace, Norton Simon, Isabella Stewart Gardner, J. P. Morgan., Robert Lehman, and Andrew W. Mellon.  How have some rich Americans utilized their museum bequest to establish themselves as European-style aristocrats? Might you want to categorize distinctive variations of the donor bequest?  You are welcome to mention other museum donors in suggesting distinctive variations.


VII What seem to be the organizing principles by which the current Getty Villa displays objects related to ancient women and objects related to ancient men? Document by citing at least 2 rooms on the second floor. Indicate some of the historical content that is taught in each room by a featured large item as well as at least l display cabinet.


Below not on first exam, but good topics to think about for possible takehome questions later in semester:


In class I showed images of a botanical garden, a library, and an anatomy theatre in Leiden, and suggested that 16th century interest in the organization of knowledge evident in those images influenced the emergence of the museum (in the form of botanical gardens, libraries, and various rooms of display). Do you think history of museums should include libraries and gardens or not? If so, for which centuries?  If not, you are in agreement with the current separation of specialties.  Explain your view with specific examples.


Discuss the history of reading from scroll to codex to printed book.  What have you learned about the history of the book from Oxy’s 16th and early 17th century books (including map books and woodcuts)? From the decoration of Sixtus V’s room in the Vatican library?  We shall be able to compare Renaissance book-collecting to a 18th century English reading room (Braun Room of Oxy Library).


Consider “Assemblage, 1845.”  What are the advantages of displaying objects in one building from multiple civilizations? What are the advantages of focusing a building on the display of one civilization at one particular time?  Yet, for a civilization like Great Britain that saw itself as a successor to multiple civilizations, is not the British Museum a display of one civilization in an age of imperialism?


Should objects that are “the best art” be separated for display from other objects?